How open is your government? Find out.

Each state has its own laws about making documents, data and other records accessible to the public. There are also separate public records laws for the federal agencies, the District of Columbia, and territories such as Guam, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. MuckRock tracks how states impose exemptions that allow them to withhold records; how quickly each state responds; and other factors affecting government transparency. The data in this interactive database is drawn from MuckRock's database and from work by Miranda Spivack, an independent journalist, who developed data on open government in collaboration with the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, students at Marquette University's Diederich College of Communication and Reveal from The Center for Investigative Reporting. View the original version of this visualization at the Journal Sentinel.

Click on any jurisdiction to learn more about its laws, and let us know what data you'd like to see us start tracking or if you see something that needs updating.

Average Response Time

Governments fulfilling requests for public records have a reputation for being slow, but how slow can vary widely based on state, agency, and the complexity of the request. Below is the average number of days for agencies to complete requests, updated in real time based on requests filed and tracked through MuckRock. Note that these are mean averages — a few outliers can make a big difference in states with fewer requests. States in green are the fastest at under 30 days; agencies in yellow respond, on average, within 30 to 60 days; and red agencies take more than 60 days to respond.

 
 
 
 
 
250
USA
 
 
 
 
 
99
AK
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
68
ME
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
45
VT
111
NH
101
WA
40
ID
104
MT
48
ND
90
MN
 
67
MI
 
130
NY
89
MA
25
RI
96
OR
76
UT
67
WY
81
SD
71
IA
105
WI
93
IN
73
OH
73
PA
82
NJ
86
CT
87
CA
93
NV
55
CO
37
NE
76
MO
50
IL
55
KY
84
WV
63
VA
77
MD
72
DE
 
120
AZ
124
NM
73
KS
93
AR
77
TN
118
NC
89
SC
162
DC
 
 
 
 
 
176
OK
114
LA
150
MS
139
AL
72
GA
 
 
 
115
HI
 
 
72
TX
 
 
 
 
80
FL
 
 

Is there a fixed time in which the agency needs to respond?

Most states specify a number of days that its governments have to respond to a public records request. While these deadlines are often missed, this element of the law is useful for reminding agencies that a legal clock is ticking. Some states interpret these deadlines as the deadline for an initial response, while others use it as a deadline for a final response, often with the ability to extend the deadline for complex requests.

 
 
 
 
 
USA
 
 
 
 
 
AK
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ME
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
VT
NH
WA
ID
MT
ND
MN
 
MI
 
NY
MA
RI
OR
UT
WY
SD
IA
WI
IN
OH
PA
NJ
CT
CA
NV
CO
NE
MO
IL
KY
WV
VA
MD
DE
 
AZ
NM
KS
AR
TN
NC
SC
DC
 
 
 
 
 
OK
LA
MS
AL
GA
 
 
 
HI
 
 
TX
 
 
 
 
FL
 
 

Do public record laws apply to the executive branch?

In almost every state, public records laws apply to the governor's office, although many states offer special carve outs for the executive. At the federal level, while the White House is exempt from the Freedom of Information Act, (FOIA) it is subject to the Presidential Records Act, which allows disclosure of some records five years after the president leaves office.

 
 
 
 
 
USA
 
 
 
 
 
AK
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ME
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
VT
NH
WA
ID
MT
ND
MN
 
MI
 
NY
MA
RI
OR
UT
WY
SD
IA
WI
IN
OH
PA
NJ
CT
CA
NV
CO
NE
MO
IL
KY
WV
VA
MD
DE
 
AZ
NM
KS
AR
TN
NC
SC
DC
 
 
 
 
 
OK
LA
MS
AL
GA
 
 
 
HI
 
 
TX
 
 
 
 
FL
 
 

Do public record laws apply to the legislative branch?

While many states offer some access to legislative records, that can vary widely. In some cases, only administrative records are subject to disclosure, while other states allow broad access to communications with constituents and other records.

 
 
 
 
 
USA
 
 
 
 
 
AK
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ME
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
VT
NH
WA
ID
MT
ND
MN
 
MI
 
NY
MA
RI
OR
UT
WY
SD
IA
WI
IN
OH
PA
NJ
CT
CA
NV
CO
NE
MO
IL
KY
WV
VA
MD
DE
 
AZ
NM
KS
AR
TN
NC
SC
DC
 
 
 
 
 
OK
LA
MS
AL
GA
 
 
 
HI
 
 
TX
 
 
 
 
FL
 
 

Which states allow blocking out-of-state requestors?

Citing the Supreme Court precedent McBurney v. Young, a number of states can block requests from out of staters. Many agencies in these states do continue to process requests from non-residents. The citizenship requirement can be an additional barrier to access, even for resident requesters who might prefer to maintain their privacy or who don't have access to identification.

 
 
 
 
 
USA
 
 
 
 
 
AK
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ME
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
VT
NH
WA
ID
MT
ND
MN
 
MI
 
NY
MA
RI
OR
UT
WY
SD
IA
WI
IN
OH
PA
NJ
CT
CA
NV
CO
NE
MO
IL
KY
WV
VA
MD
DE
 
AZ
NM
KS
AR
TN
NC
SC
DC
 
 
 
 
 
OK
LA
MS
AL
GA
 
 
 
HI
 
 
TX
 
 
 
 
FL
 
 

Do public records laws apply to the judiciary?

Often courts are exempt from traditional public records laws, and instead provide access to legal filings and other judicial records via their own access rules and systems. Even in those states where the judiciary is subject to public records requests, there are often wide exemptions for judges' own records .

 
 
 
 
 
USA
 
 
 
 
 
AK
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ME
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
VT
NH
WA
ID
MT
ND
MN
 
MI
 
NY
MA
RI
OR
UT
WY
SD
IA
WI
IN
OH
PA
NJ
CT
CA
NV
CO
NE
MO
IL
KY
WV
VA
MD
DE
 
AZ
NM
KS
AR
TN
NC
SC
DC
 
 
 
 
 
OK
LA
MS
AL
GA
 
 
 
HI
 
 
TX
 
 
 
 
FL
 
 

How many exemptions are in MuckRock's database for each jurisdiction?

MuckRock has a growing database of public records exemptions, details on how they should and should not be applied, and sample language to craft an appeal. This database is not comprehensive. A jurisdiction may have more exemptions than are actually written into law.

 
 
 
 
 
19
 
 
 
 
 
3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
 
3
 
3
13
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
6
3
3
3
3
3
8
10
3
3
3
6
 
5
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
 
 
 
 
 
3
3
3
3
4
 
 
 
13
 
 
3
 
 
 
 
4
 
 

Does the jurisdiction have an appeal process?

Many jurisdictions allow requesters to appeal denials, although these processes vary widely. Based on MuckRock’s research, the following jurisdictions allow some form of requester appeal. You can click on a given state to learn more about its process.

 
 
 
 
 
USA
 
 
 
 
 
AK
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ME
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
VT
NH
WA
ID
MT
ND
MN
 
MI
 
NY
MA
RI
OR
UT
WY
SD
IA
WI
IN
OH
PA
NJ
CT
CA
NV
CO
NE
MO
IL
KY
WV
VA
MD
DE
 
AZ
NM
KS
AR
TN
NC
SC
DC
 
 
 
 
 
OK
LA
MS
AL
GA
 
 
 
HI
 
 
TX
 
 
 
 
FL
 
 

Michael Andre, Gurman Bhatia, JPat Brown, Jabril Faraj, Maddy Kennedy, Mitchell Kotler, Beryl Lipton, Edgar Mendez, Michael Morisy, Devi Shastri, Theresa Soley, Miranda Spivack, and Curtis Waltman contributed to the research, fact checking, design and implementation of this database. For any updates, additions or corrections, please send an email to info@muckrock.com. It was funded in part by the Fund for Investigative Journalism, Marquette’s O’Brien Fellowship in Public Service Journalism, and the Arnold Foundation.